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Medical Journal of Malaysia, Volume 72, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 3-6

Extra-anatomical veno-venous surgical bypass for central vein occlusion in patients with ipsilateral arterio-venous fistula (AVF) for haemodialysis - A single centre experience

Abstract :

Objective: Central vein occlusion is a common complication related to central vein catheter insertion for haemodialysis which can be unmasked by an ipsilateral fistula creation, leading to a dysfunctional arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We describe an extra-anatomical venous bypass surgical procedure performed to maintain vascular access and reduce the symptoms of swelling of the ipsilateral upper limb, neck and face. Materials and Methods: We report 20 consecutive patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) who had central vein occlusion and were not amenable to endovascular intervention. They underwent extra-anatomical vein to vein surgical bypass. The axillary and iliac or femoral veins were approached via infraclavicular and extraperitoneal groin incisions respectively. In all the patients, an externally supported 6 or 8 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft was used as a conduit and was tunnelled extra-anatomical. All patients had double antiplatelet (Aspirin and Clopidogrel) therapy post-operatively. Results: Substantial improvement in the facial, neck and upper limb swelling was noticed following this diversion surgery. The vein to vein bypass was patent at 12 months in 10 out of 20 patients. Graft infection occurred in two (10%) cases. Re-thrombectomy or assisted patency procedure (stent/plasty) was done in four (20%) cases. The patients with preoperative fistula flow rate of more than 1500 ml/min and post-operative graft flow rate of more than a 1000 ml/min were patent at 12 months (P=0.025 and p=0.034 respectively). Conclusion. Axillary to iliac/femoral vein bypass can salvage functioning ipsilateral fistula threatened by occluded upper central vein and relieve their upper limb obstructive venous symptoms. © 2017, Malaysian Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Keywords : Arteriovenous fistula,Central balloon venoplasty,Central vein occlusion,Extra-anatomical vein to vein bypass
Subject Area : Medicine(all)

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