Tarkhineh is a traditional fermented cereal based food which is produced in different rural areas in Kermanshah province, Iran. The aims of this study were to identify the predominant lactic acid bacteria isolates. A total of 75 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates were subjected to grouping and identifying using the carbohydrates fermentation profiles and 16S rDNA sequencing, respectively. The sequencing results showed that the majority of the strains belonged to the genus of Lactobacillus, and were dispersed into five species: L. plantarum (25.33%), L. fermentum (22.66%), L. pentosus (12%), L. brevis (10.66%), and L. diolivorans (1.33%). Minor populations of the other genera, included: Enterococcus (faecium and faecalis) (18.66%), Leuconostoc citreum (5.33%) and Pediococcus (acidilactici and pentosaceus) (3.99%). All of the strains of L. plantarum and L. brevis were subjected to rep-PCR typing. High intra-species diversity was found among L. plantarum and L. brevis isolates. It was concluded that poly-phasic strategies, based on molecular techniques, are necessary for reliable and accurate studying of the microbial composition of fermented products. © All Rights Reserved.